The US President-elect Donald Trump called the First Minister on Friday.
The Scottish Government described the phone call as a "brief introductory conversation".
Following his surprise election victory last month, Nicola Sturgeon sent Trump a letter of congratulations.
During the election however the SNP leader publicly backed his opponent Hillary Clinton.
Sturgeon also stripped Trump of his business ambassadorial role with the devolved administration following his support for a ban on Muslims entering the country as he was "no longer fit" for the role.
A Scottish Government spokeswoman said: "The First Minister offered her congratulations and, reflecting on the letter she sent him following the election, expressed her belief in the values Scotland and the United States share.
"The First Minister and the President-elect also discussed the longstanding relationship between Scotland and the United States."
It is the latest in a series of engagements with political leaders by the President-elect.
Last month Ukip leader Nigel Farage, and several aides, had a meeting with Trump at his residence in New York.